1 Jan Knappert, Traditional Swahili Poetry, Leiden: E.J. Brill 1967; idem, Swahili Islamic Poetry, 3 vols., Leiden: E.J. Brill 1971; idem, An Anthology of Swahili Love Song, London 1972; idem, Four Centuries of Swahili Verse, London 1979, 1982: idem, Epic Poetry in Swahili and Other African Languages, Leiden: E.J. Brill 1983 and idem, Islamic Legends, 2 vols., Leiden: E.J. Brill 1985; also by J. Knappert, a series of articles in Afrika und ~bersee [Hamburg], 1961-1990. See further Swahili: Journal of the East African Swahili Committee, Dar es Salaam, xxxiii, xxxiv, 1962-64, ed. J. Knappert.

2 J. Knappert, 'The Islamic poetry of Africa', Journal of Islamic Studies [Johannesburg], x, 1990, 91-140.

3 To appear in Manuscripts of the Middle East, ed. J. Witkam.

4 Diedrich Westermann and Margaret Bryant (Languages of West Africa, London: International African Institute, 1952) bemoaned the lack of indigenous African literature. Since that time a wealth of documents in West African languages has come to light; see, for example Gordon Innes in B. Andrzejewski, S. Pilaszewicz and W. Tyloch, Literatures in African Languages, Warsaw/Cambridge 1985.

5 Gordon Innes, Sunjata, London: SOAS 1974. For the Islamic elements in that poem, see Knappert, 'The Islamic poetry of Africa', 128-9.

6 See EI (2), II, 920; P.J. Chelkowski, Ta'ziyeh. Ritual and Drama in Iran, New York: New York University Press 1979, 166, 194, 198, 249.

7 Jan Knappert, Malay Myths and Legends, Kuala Lumpur 1980.

8 See Knappert, Islamic legends.

9 See my Swahili Islamic Poetry, I, Chapter 2.

10 See my A Choice of Flowers. Chaguo la Maua, London: Heinemann 1972.

11 See A. Van Selms, Arabies-Afrikaanse Studies, Amsterdam 1951.

12 Kappert, 'Islamic poetry of Africa', 106ff.

13 Knappert, 'Islamic poetry of Africa', 110-22 and David Arnott in Andrzejewski &al, Literatures in African Languages, 83ff.

14 See Enrico Cerulli, La Lingua e la Storia di Harar, Rome 1936.

15 See Mervyn Hiskett, A History of Hausa Islamic Verse, London: SOAS 1975.

16 There are mss in Jarma in the Arabic script in the collection of the Institut des Recherches en Sciences Humaines, Niamey.

17 See A.D.H. Bivar, 'A dated Kuran from Bornu', Nigeria Magazine, lxv, 1960.

18 See B.W. Andrzejewski, 'The rise of written Somali literature', African Research and Documentation [Birmingham], viii-ix, 1975, 7-14.

19 There are mss in Songhai in the Centre de Documentation et de Recherches Ahmad Baba in Timbuktu.

20 See Innes in Andrzejewski &al, Literatures in African Languages, 118.